You can't have failed to notice the growing interest in intermittent fasting in recent years. Traditional advice to 'always eat breakfast' and 'never skip a meal' is much less present and in its place is advice to fast for hours or days.
Dr Michael Mosley first introduced the 5:2 fasting idea on a TV show back in 2012. Since then fasting has grown rapidly in popularity, but questions still remain – in terms of weight loss, is fasting superior to the tried and tested calorie counting? Does fasting boast additional health benefits to simply losing weight or maintaining a healthy weight? Is one fasting regime better than another? Let's discuss!
Intermittent fasting can help with weight loss, simply because it's a way to restrict calorie intake. Whether it's significantly reducing your intake for two days of the week or minimising your eating times to an 8 hour window every day – these approaches inevitably lead to a reduced calorie intake. Research comparing weight loss in individuals who fasted for two days of the week compared to those who reduced their calorie intake by 20% every day, found no difference in the amount of weight lost. This suggests intermittent fasting is no better for weight loss than simply reducing your calorie intake a little each day.
There are countless studies looking into the effect of intermittent fasting on the health of rats, with very promising results. Some research has been conducted in humans, showing similar effects on blood pressure and insulin resistance. However, in order to improve the quality of the evidence base, long term studies in humans are needed to establish whether intermittent fasting produces lasting results and positive effects for longevity.
That said, some research has found that intermittent fasting can result in:
Many of these factors will result in a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.
While the evidence for the health benefits of intermittent fasting in humans isn't yet concrete, there's little evidence to suggest it could be particularly harmful if conducted sensibly. So if a particular fasting approach suits you and your lifestyle, by all means give it a try and potentially you could be benefiting your health in multiple ways too!
There are various intermittent fasting approaches being popularised right now, but is any one more effective than the others?
Let's quickly outline how each works:
All approaches don't require you to monitor your calorie intake, but rather rely on you naturally consuming fewer calories across the course of the day or week. The premise is that if there are less hours in the day when you can eat, you will consume fewer calories, and when you do eat, there's only so much food you can manage in one meal. This means they can all be effective approaches for weight loss.
Not all approaches have been rigorously studied – in fact, despite it having the most spotlight, the 5:2 approach hasn't been subjected to much research, certainly, no long term studies have been carried out so far. It's mostly backed by the general idea and proposed benefits of intermittent fasting – but currently there is nothing to say this fasting approach is any better than the others highlighted.
There is much research to support the idea of eating more food earlier on in the day, and gradually reducing our intake until early evening. One study found that women who ate their largest meal at the start of the day, lost twice as much weight as those who ate their largest meal at the end of the day. This is believed to be due to our body's natural circadian rhythms and when it is most geared up to receive and metabolise food.
On top of this, research involving prediabetic men found that if they ate all their calories within an eight hour window (between 7am and 3pm), their blood pressure reduced and insulin sensitivity increased – when compared to eating the same amount over 12 hours.
Additional research has also shown that individuals who have irregular eating patterns are at a greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome (various conditions that lead to an increased risk of diabetes and heart disease for example). Even if they're eating fewer calories than those who don't have irregular eating patterns.
These findings highlight the importance of meal timings and general dietary patterns for maintaining good health and weight loss.
If your goal is to lose weight, intermittent fasting may not produce any better results than a standard calorie reduction diet. That said, it's about finding an approach that allows you to stick to a reduced intake most easily. Some people prefer to have two very strict days in the week and then 5 days more relaxed eating, others find that limiting their eating window helps to prevent excess evening snacking for example, whilst others find it preferable to moderately reduce their food intake every day.
At the end of the day, it all comes down to finding a sustainable approach that works for you. While the evidence may suggest sleeping for 8 hours, then eating a healthy breakfast at 7am, followed by additional healthy meals until 3pm, then fasting for 16 hours until the following morning, may be the best approach for weight loss success, general health and longevity – that's not a particularly realistic lifestyle for many of us.
We're social animals, and much of our socialising or family time is in the evenings, or over dinner. There is no need to give this up in order to be healthy. Eating good quality calories and staying a healthy weight are most important, however you achieve this. A regular eating pattern also seems to help. You may decide to follow a moderately reduced calorie intake each day. Or you could try the 16:8 approach but have your eating window later in the day – there may still be the same health benefits from the period of fasting no matter when it is carried out.
Find an approach that suits you and that you can stick to – that's the best way to achieve long term success.